The epaper displays have a Chip-Select pin (CS) so it would be possible, but using an ESP8266 would be a challenge as the number of available (spare) pins to control individual displays is currently limited to about 2, but with some careful I/O pin management this could be expanded or a 2-4 line decoder added to the support boards or serial to n-port selector for many epaper displays.
There are therefore three solutions:
1. A limited ESP8266 version with perhaps 8 epaper displays wired to it using the current spare I/O lines including the TX0/RX0 lines (3 in total).
2. Adding a hardware line extension so a 2-4 line or 3-8 line or 4-16 line decoder or a serial version.
3. Using an ESP32 with it's extra pins an easy to implement solution.